Human Activity and the Environment - 2000

|Abstract|Software|Report & Tables |


Software:
  • All Chapter segments are PDF files and as such, they must be viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader. 

  • Users need to download and install the Acrobat Reader on their workstation, available here.
  • All figures and tables are XLS files and  can be viewed with Excel97 spreadsheet file viewer or similar

  • WWW browser plug-in. 


Report - Jump to

Chapter 1 - Introduction, Chapter 2 - Current Environmental Issues, (4 sections) Chapter 3 - Natural Background (4 sections)Chapter 4 - Driving Forces (8 sections)Chapter 5 - Natural Resources (5 sections),   Chapter 6 - Ecosystems and Well-being (10 sections),  Chapter 7 - Responses and Participation (7 sections). Glossary Symbols



Preface(PDF)

Table of Contents  (PDF)

Chapter 1: Introduction (PDF)

  • Text box 1.1: An expanded conceptual framework
  • Figure 1.1: Conceptual framework


Chapter 2: Current Environmental Issues
Introduction(PDF)
  • Map 2.1: Recent international agreements to address global environmental concerns 

  •  
2.1 Sustainable development (PDF)
  • Figure 2.1.1: Malthus' perspective on population and agricultural production
  • Figure 2.1.2: Household energy use in Canada, 1981-1992
  • Figure 2.1.3: International per capita energy consumption, 1995
  • 2.2 Climate change (PDF)
  • Table 2.2.1: Some characteristics of key greenhouse gases affected by human activities
  • Figure 2.2.1: Carbon dioxide concentrations, 1959-1996
  • Figure 2.2.2: Canadian temperature variations, 1895-1996
  • Figure 2.2.3: Global Temperature Variations, 1866-1996
  • Text Box 2.2.1: Putting the Kyoto protocol in context
  • Table 2.2.2: Fossil fuel use necessary to meet the Kyoto protocol targets
  • Figure 2.2.4: Oil prices and consumption, 1961-1997
  • 2.3 Stratospheric ozone depletion (PDF) 2.4 Biodiversity (PDF)
  • Table 2.4.1: Number of species for major groups of organisms, Canada and the world
  • Text Box 2.4.1: Genetic diversity in agriculture
  • Text Box 2.4.2: The United Nations framework convention on biological diversity
  •  

    back to table of contents



    Chapter 3: Natural Background
    Introduction(PDF)
  • Map 3.1: Selected geophysical, meteorological and climatic extremes
  • 3.1 Environmental geographies (PDF)
  • Map 3.1.1: Drainage Basin Hierarchy in Nova Scotia
  • Table 3.1.1: Sub-drainage Basin Names and Areas by Province and Territory
  • Map 3.1.2: Drainage Basin Areas and Discharges, 1996
  • Map 3.1.3: Prairie Ecozone with Ecoprovince and Ecoregion Subcomponents
  • Map 3.1.4: Terrestrial Ecozones, 1996
  • Map 3.1.5: Marine Ecozones
  • Table 3.1.2: Biophysical Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecozones
  • Table 3.1.3: Biophysical Characteristics of Marine Ecozones
  • 3.2 Physiography (PDF)
  • Table 3.2.1: Principal Heights by Province and Territory
  • Map 3.2.1: Elevation, 1998
  • Table 3.2.2: Land Cover by Ecozone, Province and Territory, 1992
  • Map 3.2.2: Land Cover, 1992
  • Map 3.2.3: Surficial Geology, 1996
  • Map 3.2.4: Soils, 1996
  • Table 3.2.3: Area, Elevation and Maximum Depth of Major Lakes
  • Map 3.2.5: Major Lakes and Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 1999
  • Table 3.2.4: Estimated Wetland and Peatland Area by Province and Territory, 1986
  • Map 3.2.6: Distribution of Wetlands, 1986
  • Table 3.2.5: Organic Soils by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Map 3.2.7: Distribution of Organic Soils, 1997
  • 3.3 Climate (PDF)
  • Map 3.3.1: Selected Weather Stations
  • Figure 3.3.1: Average Annual Number of Days with Freezing Temperatures, 1961-1990
  • Map 3.3.2: Mean Annual Daily Maximum Temperature, 1961-1990
  • Map 3.3.3: Mean Annual Daily Minimum Temperature, 1961-1990
  • Figure 3.3.2: Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990
  • Map 3.3.4: Mean Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990
  • Table 3.3.1: Average Daily Temperature by Month for Selected Weather Stations, 1961-1990
  • Table 3.3.2: Annual Averages of Various Weather Conditions for Selected Weather Stations, 1961-1990
  • Table 3.3.3: Average Annual Degree-Days, Wind and Precipitation for Selected Weather Stations, 1961-1990
  • Map 3.3.5: Canadian Climate Regions
  • Table 3.3.4: Top 10 Canadian Weather Stories of 1998
  • Table 3.3.5: Annual Regional Temperature Departures: Trends and Extremes, 1948-1998
  • Figure 3.3.3: Trends in Canadian Average Air Temperatures, 1985-1996
  • Figure 3.3.4: Trends in Global Average Air Temperatures, 1866-1996
  • 3.4 Geophysical and meteorological profile (PDF)
  • Map 3.4.1: Earthquakes
  • Table 3.4.1: Major Earthquakes, 1663-1998
  • Text Box 3.4.1: Atlantic Ocean Tsunami, 1929
  • Map 3.4.2: Landslides
  • Table 3.4.2: Major Landslides, Snow Avalanches and Related Disasters, 1841-1999
  • Text Box 3.4.2: The Frank Slide, 1903
  • Map 3.4.3: Average Annual Peak River Flow
  • Table 3.4.3: Major Floods, 1826-1998
  • Text Box 3.4.3: Saguenay River Flood of 1996 and Red River Flood of 1997
  • Map 3.4.4: Hail
  • Text Box 3.4.4: Calgary Hailstorm, 1991
  • Map 3.4.5: Fog and Sea Ice
  • Text Box 3.4.5: Hazards at Sea: Icebergs and Fog
  • Map 3.4.6: Tornadoes
  • Table 3.4.5: Major Tornadoes, 1879-1999
  • Text Box 3.4.6: Edmonton Tornado, 1987
  • Table 3.4.4: Major Storms, 1583-1998
  • Figure 3.4.1: Causes of Death: Accidents Due to Natural and Environmental Factors, 1965-1990
  • Text Box 3.4.7: Killer Canadian Weather
  • Table 3.4.A: Major Disasters, 1583-1999
  • back to table of contents


    Chapter 4: Driving Forces
    Introduction(PDF)
    • Map 4.1: Driving Forces Highlights
    4.1 Population (PDF)
  • Text Box 4.1.1: How Many Canadians, Exactly?
  • Table 4.1.1: Total Population by Province and Territory, 1901, 1951, and 1996
  • Figure 4.1.1: Population Growth Rate by Province and Territory
  • Table 4.1.2: Population by Provincial and Territorial Ecozone, 1976, 1986, and 1996
  • Table 4.1.3: Population by Ecozone and Ecoprovince, 1971 and 1996
  • Map 4.1.1: Population Change by Ecoprovince, 1971-1996
  • Table 4.1.4: Population Density, 1901, 1951 and 1996
  • Table 4.1.5: Rural and Urban Population by Provincial and Territorial Drainage Sub-basin, 1976, 1986 and 1996
  • Map 4.1.2: Population Density by Sub-sub-basin, 1996
  • Table 4.1.6: Population of Cities of 1,000 Persons and Over by Size, 1871, 1901, 1951 and 1996 1986 and 1996
  • Figure 4.1.2: Population in Cities of 1,000 Persons and Over by Size, 1871, 1901, 1951, and 1996
  • Table 4.1.7: Estimates of Population for Census Metropolitan Areas, 1976, 1986 and 1996
  • Table 4.1.8: Components of Population Growth, 1960-1998
  • Figure 4.1.3: Components of Population Growth: Natural Increase and Net Migrations, 1901-1997
  • Figure 4.1.5: Age Pyramid 1901, 1996, and 2016
  • Table 4.1.9: Share of Immigrant Population by Province and Territory, Selected Years
  • Table 4.1.10: Immigrants by Place of Birth and Period of Immigration, 1996
  • Table 4.1.11: Interprovincial Migrants, January to December, 1996
  • Table 4.1.12: Net Migration by Province and Territory, 1970-1996
  • Table 4.1.13: Population by Age Group, Selected Years
  • Table 4.1.14: Life Expectancy at Birth by Sex, 1920-22 to 1997
  • Figure 4.1.4: Dependency Ratios, Selected Years
  • Table 4.1.15: Summary of Component Assumptions Underlying Projections 1 to 3, Canada, 1993-2016
  • Figure 4.1.6: Population Projections, 1950-2041
  • Text Box 4.1.2 - Population Projection Around the World
  • Table 4.1.16: Projected Population by Province and Territory, 1993-2041, (Projection 2, Medium-Growth Scenario
  • Table 4.1.A: Quarterly Estimates of Population by Province and Territory: 1951-1998
  • Table 4.1.B: Components of Population Growth by Intercensal Period, 1851-1996
  • Table 4.1.C: Annual Number of Deaths for the Year Ending June 30, by Province and territory, 1972-1997
  • Table 4.1.D: Census Population and Immigration by Province and Territory, Selected Years
  • Table 4.1.E: Annual Emigration for the Year Ending June 30, by Province and Territory, 1972-1997
  • Table 4.1.F: Annual Immigration for the Year Ending June 30, by Province and Territory, 1972-1997
  • Table 4.1.G: Non-permanent Residents as of July 1, by Province and Territory, 1972-1997
  • 4.2 Economy (PDF)
  • Text Box 4.2.1: Gross Domestic Product
  • Figure 4.2.1: Gross Domestic Product, 1900-1998
  • Figure 4.2.2: Average Growth Rates of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Product per Capita, Selected Years
  • Table 4.2.1: Gross Domestic Product by Industry, Selected Years
  • Table 4.2.2: Employment by Industry, Selected Years
  • Figure 4.2.3: Consumer Expenditures per Capita, 1961-1998
  • Table 4.2.3: Consumer Expenditures, Selected Years
  • Figure 4.2.4: International Trade as a Share of Gross Domestic Product, 1961-1998
  • Table 4.2.4: Composition of Exports and Imports, Selected Years
  • Table 4.2.5: Export and Import Propensities, Selected Years
  • Table 4.2.A: Gross Domestic Product by Industry, 1961-1996
  • Table 4.2.B: Employment by Industry, 1961-1996
  • Table 4.2.C: Consumer Expenditures, 1961-1998
  • Table 4.2.D: Import and Export by Industry, Selected Years
  • 4.3 Science and technology (PDF)
  • Text Box 4.3.1: Defining Science and Technology
  • Figure 4.3.1: Gross Expenditure in R&D as a Share of GDP, 1987-1997
  • Figure 4.3.2: Gross Expenditure in R&D as a Share of GDP for Selected OECD Countries, 1997
  • Figure 4.3.3: Composition of Gross Expenditure in R&D by Sector, 1986-1998
  • Table 4.3.1: R&D Expenditures by Selected Industry, 1993-1997
  • Table 4.3.2: Federal Government R&D Expenditures by Socio-economic Objective, 1995-96 to 1998-99
  • Figure 4.3.4: Share of Gross Expenditure in R&D by Higher Education Sector for Selected OECD Countries, 1997
  • Table 4.3.3: R&D Expenditures and Source of Funds in the Higher Education Sector, 1996-97
  • Table 4.3.4: Total Number of Scientific Publications, 1980-1995
  • Table 4.3.5: Canadian Share of World Scientific Publications by Subject, 1995
  • Text Box 4.3.2: Prescott, Ontario: Technology in a Small Town
  • Text Box 4.3.3: Biotechnologies Explained
  • Industry profiles

    4.4 Agriculture (PDF)

  • Table 4.4.1: Number of Farms by Province, 1871-1996
  • Figure 4.4.1: Numer of Farms, Agricultural Land and Cropland, 1901-1996
  • Figure 4.4.2: Total and Agricultural Labour Force Employed, 1926-1995
  • Figure 4.4.3: Agricultural Activities as a Share of GDP, 1961-1997
  • Table 4.4.2: Number of Farms by Total Gross Farm Receipts, 1981-1996
  • Table 4.4.3: Agricultural Technology Indicators, 1921-1996
  • Text Box 4.4.1 - Nitrogen Fertilizer
  • Figure 4.4.4: Fertilizers Sold in Eastern and Western Canada, 1967-1997
  • Figure 4.4.5: Area Treated with Herbicides by Province, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.6: Area Treated with Insecticides by Province, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.7: Agricultural Net Income and Cash Receipts, 1926-1997
  • Figure 4.4.8: Net Farm Income, 1971-1997
  • Figure 4.4.A: Commercial Agricultural Fertilizer Application by Province and Drainage Sub-basin, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.B: Commercial Agricultural Fertilizer Application by Province and Ecozone, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.C: Commercial Agricultural Fertilizer Application by Ecozone, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.D: Nutrient Fertilizer Application by Province and Ecozone, 1970 and 1995
  • Figure 4.4.E: Nutrient Fertilizer Application by Province and Ecozone, 1970 and 1995
  • 4.5 Fisheries (PDF)
  • Table 4.5.1: Gross Domestic Product of Fishing Industries, 1989-1997
  • Table 4.5.2: Employment in the Fishing Industries, 1989-1997
  • Table 4.5.3: Exports and Imports of Fish and Fish Products, 1989-1997
  • Text Box 4.5.1: Newfoundland: Living with the Decline of Cod Stocks
  • Table 4.5.4: Federal Programs Addressing the Atlantic Groundfish Decline, 1990-1998
  • Table 4.5.5: Fish Caught and Kept by Recreational Anglers, 1990 and 1995
  • 4.6 Forest industries (PDF)
  • Text Box 4.6.1 : The State of the World's Forests
  • Table 4.6.1: Production of Selected Forest Products, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.2: Gross Domestic Product of Selected Forest Products Industries, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.3: Capital Expenditure in the Logging and Forestry Industries, 1960-69 to 1990-99
  • Table 4.6.4: Employment in Selected Forest Product Industries, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.5: Employment in Forest Products Industries by Province, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.6: Employment and Roundwoood Harvest, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.7: Shipments of Roundwood by Product and Region, 1994 and 1995
  • Table 4.6.8: Export of Forest Products, 1978-1996
  • Table 4.6.9: Canada's World Ranking for the Production and Exports of Selected Forest Products, 1997
  • Table 4.6.10: Exports of Pulpwood, Lumber and Wood Pulp to the United States, Selected Years
  • Figure 4.6.1: Forest Management Expenditure by Source, Selected Years
  • Text Box 4.6.2: Ownership of Canadian Forests
  • Table 4.6.11: Total Annual Expenditure by Source, Selected Years
  • Figure 4.6.2: Forest Management Expenditure by Type, Selected Years
  • Table 4.6.12: Population in Forest-dependent Communities by Province, 1986, 1991 and 1996
  • Map 4.6.1: Population Size and Variation of Forest-dependent Communities, 1986-1996
  • 4.7 Mineral industries (PDF)
  • Figure 4.7.1: Production of Selected Minerals, 1948-1998
  • Table 4.7.1: GDP at Factor Cost for Mineral Industries, Selected Years
  • Table 4.7.2: Employment in Mining, Quarrying and Oil Well Industries by Province and Territory, 1983-1998
  • Table 4.7.3: Employment in Mineral Industries by Industry, Selected Years
  • Text Box 4.7.1: Mineral Processing
  • Table 4.7.4: Employment in Smelting, Milling and Refining Activities of the Mineral Industries, Selected Years
  • Table 4.7.5: GDP at Factor Cost for Smelting, Milling and Refining Activities of the Mineral Industries, Selected Years
  • Table 4.7.6: International Shipping of Minerals, 1997
  • Table 4.7.7: Domestic Shipping of Minerals, 1997
  • Table 4.7.8: Production of Leading Minerals by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Table 4.7.9: Mineral Fuels Production, Selected Years
  • Table 4.7.10: Mineral Exploration Expenditures by Province and Territory, 1994-1998
  • 4.8 Transportation (PDF)
  • Figure 4.8.1: Evolution of GDP Contribution by Transport Mode, 1961-1998
  • Table 4.8.1: Water Transport, 1988-1997
  • Table 4.8.2: Rail Transport, 1961-1996
  • Figure 4.8.2: Goods Shipped by Mode of Transportation, 1990-1996
  • Table 4.8.3: Truck Transport, 1989-1997
  • Table 4.8.4: Air Transport, 1988-1997
  • Figure 4.8.3: Passengers Transported by Mode of Transportation, 1991-1995
  • Figure 4.8.4: Intercity Passengers by Mode of Transportation, 1996
  • Table 4.8.5: Transportation by Bus and Mass Transit, 1980-1997
  • Table 4.8.6: Motor Vehicle Registration, 1980-1997
  • Figure 4.8.5: Workforce Using Their Own Car to Get to Work by Census Metropolitan Area, 1996
  • Text Box 4.8.1: Selected Environmental Impacts by Mode of Transport
  • Table 4.8.7: Road Network by Province and Territory
  • Table 4.8.8: Greenhouse Gas(CO2) Emissions from Mobile Sources, 1990-1995
  • Table 4.8.9: Emissions of Selected Greenhouse Gases by the Transportation Industry, 1990-1995
  • Table 4.8.10: Consumption of Refined Petroleum Products by Mode of Transportation, 1991-1996
  • back to table of contents


    Chapter 5: Natural Resources
    Introduction(PDF)
  • Map 5.1: Natural Resources Highlights
  • 5.1 Agricultural resources (PDF)
  • Text Box 5.1.1: Canada Land Inventory Classes 1,2 and 3 - Canada's Dependable Agricultural Land Base
  • Map 5.1.1: Dependable Agricultural Land
  • Table 5.1.1: Canada Land Inventory: Soil Capability for Agriculture
  • Figure 5.1.1: Urban Land Use, 1971-1996
  • Figure 5.1.2: Class 1 Farmland Occupied by Urban Land, 1971-1996
  • Text Box 5.1.2: Census of Agriculture Land Definitions
  • Map 5.1.2: Agricultural Land
  • Table 5.1.2: Farms and Agricultural Land, 1901-1996
  • Table 5.1.3: Agricultural Land Area and Average Farm Size by Ecozone, 1971 and 1996
  • Table 5.1.4: Cultivated Agricultural Land by Ecozone, 1971 and 1996
  • Text Box 5.1.3: Methods of Soil Conservation
  • Table 5.1.5: Tillage Practices by Ecozone, 1991 and 1996
  • Figure 5.1.3: Selected Field Crop Production, 1910-1996 (Five-year Averages)
  • Figure 5.1.4: Production of Major Small Grains in Canada, 1910-1996 (Five-year Averages)
  • Figure 5.1.5: Selected Livestock Populations, 1909-1998
  • Table 5.1.A: Agricultural Land Area and Average Farm Size by Province and Drainage Sub-basin, 1971 and 1996
  • Table 5.1.B: Agricultural Land Area and Average Farm Size by Province and Ecozone, 1971 and 1996
  • Table 5.1.C: Cultivated Agricultural Land by Province and Drainage Sub-basin, 1971 and 1996
  • Table 5.1.D: Cultivated Agricultural Land by Province and Ecozone, 1971 and 1996
  • 5.2 Forest resources (PDF)
  • Text Box 5.2.1: Canada's Forest Inventory
  • Figure 5.2.1: Managed Forest Area by Province and Territory, 1994
  • Table 5.2.1: Area of Managed Forest by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Map 5.2.1: Forest Type, 1994
  • Map 5.2.2: Timber Volume, All Species, 1994
  • Figure 5.2.2: Growing Stock by Province and Territory, 1994
  • Table 5.2.2: Volume of Managed Forest by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Figure 5.2.3: Roundwood Volume Harvested, 1970-1997
  • Figure 5.2.4: Coniferous Volume Harvested by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Figure 5.2.5: Broadleaved Volume Harvested by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Figure 5.2.6: Annual Allowable Cut by Province and Territory, 1991-1997
  • Figure 5.2.7: Annual Allowable Cut Utilization by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Figure 5.2.8: Harvest Ratio by Province and Territory, 1997
  • Figure 5.2.9: Forest Fires by Cause, 1990-1997
  • Figure 5.2.10: Area Burned by Cause, 1990-1997
  • Figure 5.2.11: Area Burned-Stocked Timber-productive Forest Land, Alberta, 1970-1997
  • Figure 5.2.12: Area Burned-Stocked Timber-productive Forest Land, Ontario, 1970-1997
  • Figure 5.2.13: Area Burned-Stocked Timber-productive Forest Land, Quebec, 1990-1997
  • Table 5.2.A: Net Merchantable Broadleaved Volume of Roundwood Harvested by Province and Territory, 1970-1997
  • Table 5.2.B: Net Merchantable Coniferous Volume of Roundwood Harvested by Province and Territory, 1970-1997
  • Table 5.2.C: Area Burned: Stocked-timber Productive Forest Land by Province and Territory, 1970-1997
  • 5.3 Marine resources (PDF)
  • Map 5.3.1: Northwestern Atlantic Fishing Areas
  • Table 5.3.1: Spawning Biomass of Selected Fish Stocks, 1950-1997
  • Text Box 5.3.1: Total Allowable Catch
  • Text Box 5.3.2: The 200-Mile Limit
  • Table 5.3.2: Landed Catch and Value, 1989-1997
  • Table 5.3.3: Landed Catch and Value, Atlantic Coast, 1989-1997
  • Figure 5.3.1: Atlantic Coast Groundfish Landings, 1960-1996
  • Table 5.3.5: Landed Catch by Species and by Province, 1989 and 1997
  • Table 5.3.6: Landed Value by Species and by Province, 1989 and 1997
  • Table 5.3.4: Landed Catch and Value, British Columbia Coast, 1989-1997
  • Table 5.3.7: Aquaculture Production, 1989-1997
  • 5.4 Wildlife resources (PDF)
  • Table 5.4.1: Big Game Stocks by Province and Territory, 1996
  • Figure 5.4.1a: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Mallards) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1b: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Gadwalls) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1c: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Green-winged teals) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1d: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Northern shoveller) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1e: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Redheads) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1f: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Northern pintails) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1g: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (American widgeons) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1h: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Blue-winged teals) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1i: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Canvasbacks) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Figure 5.4.1j: Population Indices (with Standard Errors) for Major Duck Species (Scaup species) in the Traditional Waterfowl Survey Area, 1961-1998
  • Table 5.4.2: Big Game Harvested by Province and Territory, 1990-1996
  • Table 5.4.3: Big Game Licences Sold by Province and Territory, 1995
  • Figure 5.4.2: Pelts Harvested from Major Species, 1970-1996
  • Figure 5.4.3: Wild vs. Ranch-raised Pelts Harvested, 1970-1996
  • Table 5.4.4: Pelts Harvested by Province and Territory, 1995-96
  • Table 5.4.5: Value of Pelts Harvested by Province and Territory, 1995-96
  • Figure 5.4.4: Canada Goose and Mallard Duck Harvest, 1979-1997
  • 5.5 Water resources (PDF)
  • Figure 5.5.1: Hydrologic Cycle
  • Map 5.5.1: Average Annual Streamflow for Major Rivers in Canada
  • Table 5.5.1: Average Annual Streamflow for Large Rivers by Drainage Basin
  • Map 5.5.2: Average Annual Run-off
  • Text Box 5.5.1: Great Lakes Facts
  • Figure 5.5.2: Groundwater Flow
  • Table 5.5.2: Groundwater Use in Canada, 1996
  • Table 5.5.3: Hydro-electric Power Generation by Province and Territory, 1994-1997
  • Text Box 5.5.2: The St-Lawrence Seaway-Great Lakes Waterway
  • Table 5.5.4: Activity at Selected Ports, 1997
  • Table 5.5.5: Major Withdrawal Uses of Water, 1981, 1986 and 1991
  • Table 5.5.6: Interbasin Water Diversions by Province
  • Table 5.5.7: Large Dams by Province by Province and Territory
  • Table 5.5.8: Status of the Natural Flood Damage Reduction Program, 1995
  • Table 5.5.A: Water Use by Sector, 1981
  • Table 5.5.B: Water Use by Sector, 1986
  • Table 5.5.C: Water Use by Sector, 1991
  • 5.6 Energy resources (PDF)
  • Table 5.6.1: Basic Energy Indicators, 1958-1997
  • Figure 5.6.4: Crude Oil Prices, 1974-1997
  • Table 5.6.2: Energy Resource Reserves, 1976-1996
  • Figure 5.6.1: Crude Oil Resource Base, 1992
  • Figure 5.6.2: Natural Gas Resource Base, 1992
  • Figure 5.6.3: Primary energy Production, Exports and Imports, 1958-1997
  • Table 5.6.3: Production and Consumption of Primary Energy Resources, 1958-1997
  • Table 5.6.4: Fuels Consumed in Thermal-electric Power Stations, 1981-1996
  • Table 5.6.5: Energy Content and Emission Factors of Fuels Used in Thermal-electric Power Stations
  • Map 5.6.1: Energy Use in Electricity Production
  • Table 5.6.6: Energy Prices, 1983 and 1996
  • Text Box 5.6.1: Deregulation of the Electric Power Industry

  • 5.7 Mineral resources (PDF)

  • Figure 5.7.1: Reserve Life of Selected Metals, 1977-1996
  • Table 5.7.1: Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1977-1996
  • Table 5.7.2: Reserves and Reserve Base of Selected Metals, 1998
  • Table 5.7.3: Mineral Production, 1948-1998
  • back to table of contents


    Chapter 6: Ecosystems and Well-being
    Introduction(PDF)
  • Map 6.1: Environmental Quality Highlights
  • 6.1 Waste generation and management (PDF)
  • Table 6.5.1: Radiation Doses
  • Table 6.1.1: Spent Nuclear Fuel Bundles in Storage by Province, 1992, 1995 and 1997
  • Text Box 6.1.1: Environmental Considerations in Nuclear Electricity Production
  • Table 6.1.2: Nuclear Power vs. Coal Power
  • Table 6.1.3: Uranium Mine and Mill Tailings by Region, 1999
  • Table 6.1.4: Inventory and Accumulation Rate of Low-level Radioactive Wastes by Source, 1991-1993
  • Table 6.1.5: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Summary, 1990 and 1996
  • Table 6.1.6: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Summary, by Province and Territory, 1996
  • Table 6.1.7: Pulp and Paper Mill Discharges and Compliance Performance by Pollutant and Region, 1996
  • Table 6.1.8: Dioxin and Furan Releases by Medium and Source, 1990, 1997 and 1999
  • Table 6.1.9: Disposal at Sea: Permits Issued and Quantities Permitted, 1987-1997
  • Map 6.1.1: Population Served by Secondary or Better Wastewater Treatment by Sub-drainage Basin, 1983 and 1996
  • Table 6.1.10: Municipal Wastewater Treatment by Level and Region, 1996
  • Table 6.1.11: Municipal Wastewater Treatment Level for Population Served with Sewers, Various Years
  • Table 6.1.12: Disposal of Waste by Province and Territory, 1994 and 1996
  • Table 6.1.13: Materials Prepared for Recycling or Reuse by Type, 1995
  • Table 6.1.14: Five Most Frequently Spilled MIACC List 1 Substances, 1984-1995
  • Table 6.1.15: On-site Releases of Pollutants in Canada: Ten Most Common by Weight, 1996
  • Table 6.1.16: Criteria Air Contaminant Emissions, 1995
  • Environmental Quality and Human Health

    6.2 Air quality (PDF)

    6.3 Water quality (PDF) 6.4 Soil (PDF)
    6.5 Contaminants in biota (PDF)
    6.6 Human health (PDF) Ecosystems Under Pressure

    6.7 Protected areas (PDF)

    6.8 Species at risk (PDF) 6.9 Invasive species (PDF) 6.10 Natural Disasters (PDF)
    back to table of contents


    Chapter 7: Responses and Participation
    Introduction(PDF)
    • Map 7.1: Responses and Participation Highlights
    7.1 Environmental legislation and non-regulatory initiatives(PDF) 7.2 Environment protection expenditures (PDF) 7.3  The environment industry(PDF)


    7.4 Environmental practices(PDF)

  • Figure 7.4.1: Environmental Practices: How Business and Government Interact
  • Table 7.4.1: Light-duty New Vehicle Gasoline Exhaust Emission Standards, 1975-1997
  • Text Box 7.4.1: Light Trucks With Less Stringent Air Pollution Regulations
  • Text Box 7.4.2: Health Benefits of Reducing Sulphur in Gasoline
  • Table 7.4.2: British Columbia's AirCare Program, 1993-1997
  • Text Box 7.4.3: Reductions of Smog-Causing Emissions in Ontario
  • Figure 7.4.2: Release of On-site NPRI Pollutants by Industry, 1996
  • Text Box 7.4.4: Reporting Requirements of the National Pollutant Release Invetory (NPRI)
  • Figure 7.4.3: ARET Emission Reductions Base Year to 2000
  • Table 7.4.3: Emission Reduction by Industry Group, Base Year to 1997
  • Table 7.4.4: Emissions of Canadian Chemical Producers, 1992 and 1997
  • Table 7.4.5: Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program Progress, 1995-1998
  • Text Box 7.4.5: What is Emission Trading?
  • Text Box 7.4.6: Examples of Emission Trades
  • Text Box 7.4.7: Examples of Emission Offsets
  • Table 7.4.6: Canadian Registrations to ISO 14000, December 1998
  • Table 7.4.7: Selected Municipal and Provincial Data on Recycling, 1997 and 1998
  • Table 7.4.8: Scrap and Recycled Tires in Canada
  • Text Box 7.4.8: Uses of Scrap Tires
  • Text Box 7.4.9: What is packaging?
  • Figure 7.4.4: Consumption and Disposition of Packaging, 1988, 1992 and 1996
  • Table 7.4.9: Consumption and Disposition of Packaging, 1988, 1992 and 1996
  • Table 7.4.10: Federal Government R&D Expenditures on Environmental Protection, 1995-96 to 1998-99
  • Table 7.4.11: Industrial R&D Expenditures on Environmental Protection, 1990-1995
  • Figure 7.4.5: Private and Government Energy R&D Expenditures, 1983-1995
  • Figure 7.4.6: Share of Total Government and Private R&D for Renewable Energy and Conservation, 1983-1995
  • Table 7.4.12: Energy-related R&D by Federal and Provincial Governments, 1983-1997
  • Table 7.4.13: Private-sector Energy Research and Development, 1983-1995
  • Text Box 7.4.10: Pollution Prevention Methods
  • Table 7.4.14: Frequency of Pollution Abatement Practices by Industry, 1996
  • Text Box 7.4.11: Water and Air Pollution Reduction Processes
  • Table 7.4.15: Water and Air Pollution Abatement Technologies, 1994-1996
  • Table 7.4.16: Full Life-cycle CO2 and ODS Emissions From Buses
  • Text Box 7.4.12: Solar Energy
  • Text Box 7.4.13: Photovoltaic Use in Canada
  • Table 7.4.17: Ethanol Manufacturing in Canada
  • Figure 7.4.7: Methane Captured from Landfills, 1990-1997
  • Text Box 7.4.14: Landfill Sites Using Methane Gas for Electricity Generation
  • Table 7.4.A: Releases by Province and Territory, 1995 and 1996
  • Table 7.4.B: Water and Air Pollution Abatement Technologies for Selected Industries, 1994-1996
  • Figure 7.4.A: Number of Facilities Reporting NPRI Information, 1995 and 1996
  • Figure 7.4.B: On-site Releases of NPRI Pollutants by environmental medium, 1995 and 1996
  • Figure 7.4.C: Flows of Packaging
  • 7.5 Public participation (PDF) 7.6 Recreation (PDF)
  • Text Box 7.6.1: Defining Nature-related Activities
  • Table 7.6.1: Numbers of Days and Trips on which Participants Engaged in Nature-related Activities, 1996
  • Table 7.6.2: Participation in Nature-related Activities by Province and Territory of Residence, 1996
  • Table 7.6.3: Expenditures on Nature-related Activities by Province and Territory of Residence, 1996
  • Table 7.6.4: Participation in Outdoor Activities in Natural Areas by Province and Territory of Residence, 1996
  • Table 7.6.5: Participation in Indirect Nature-related Activities, 1996
  • Table 7.6.6: Characteristics of Canada's National Parks System, 1997
  • Table 7.6.7: Status of the Trans Canada Trail, November, 1999
  • Text Box 7.6.2: Ecotourism and Adventure Travel
  • Table 7.6.8: Avalanche Fatalities by Activity, 1984-1996
  • Table 7.6.A: Numbers of Days1 on which Participants Engaged in Nature-related Activities by Province and Territory of Residence, 1996
  • Table 7.6.B: Profile of Canadians Participating in Nature-related Activities, 1996
  • Table 7.6.C: Numbers of Trips1 on which Participants Engaged in Nature-related Activities by Province and Territory of Residence, 1996
  • 7.7 Environmental education (PDF)
  • Table 7.7.1: Selected Science Learning Outcomes, Kindergarten to Grade 12
  • Text Box 7.7.1: Foundation Statements for Scientific Literacy in Canada
  • Text Box 7.7.2: Statistics Canada and Environmental Education
  • Table 7.7.2: Employment of 1990 Graduates from Selected Fields of Study, June 1992 and June 1995
  • Table 7.7.3: Relationship of Employment to Education of 1990 Graduates from Selected Fields of Study, June 1992 and June 1995
  • Table 7.7.4: 1990 Graduates from Selected Fields of Study Who Would Select the Same Program, June 1995
  • Glossary(PDF)

    Symbols(PDF)

    back to table of contents


    Prepared by EDRS Staff: Joshua Walker  &  Anastassia Khouri
    Last Updated: May 4, 2001 (AK) (469)