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Canadian Business Patterns


The Inter-corporate Ownership (ICO) publication is a reliable index of who owns and/or controls whom in Canada. It is intended to serve as an essential reference tool for corporate executives, bankers, financiers, marketing managers, investors, researchers and the general public, all of whom desire the latest detailed information on the corporate structure of Canadian society.

The ownership (voting equity) information contained in this CD, is primarily based upon non-confidential returns filed by Canadian corporations under the Corporations Returns Act. Each edition has been supplemented from a broad range of national and international data sources for major changes in corporate ownership which occurred prior to their release date. In addition, using such international publications as Moody’s and Who Owns Whom, information on ultimate foreign parent corporations has been obtained. In many cases, this research has resulted in expanded enterprise structures, spanning several countries and providing insights into the organization of multi-national enterprises operating in Canada.

Wherever possible, researchers have analyzed any options, insider holdings, convertible shares or interlocking directorates which could affect the control of a corporation. In a number of cases, reported nominees have been replaced by true owners and information on certain family controlled corporations is included. The Corporate Ownership Section of the CD-ROM database shows the portion of voting rights of a corporation owned or held by another corporate body or group of related individuals. All holdings of an enterprise are shown in one location, and they are presented in an easy-to-read tiered fashion with each successive layer of held corporations being indented. Within each enterprise structure, presentation is by size according to the number of corporations.

Corporations included in this database are principally those that are required to file a schedule of ownership information under the Corporations Returns Act (CRA). The Act, as amended in July 1981, applies to every corporation that carries on business in Canada or that is incorporated under a law of Canada or a province, whose gross revenue for the reporting period exceeded $15 million, or whose assets exceeded $10 million. In calculating these amounts, each corporation must include the assets and sales of its affiliates as defined in the Act. In addition, corporations with assets and sales under these amounts but having long-term debt or equity owing directly or indirectly to nonresidents exceeding a book value of $200,000 must also provide ownership information.

A country of control has been ascribed to most corporations. Each active Canadian corporation is also given a Standard Industrial Classification for Companies (SICC) code, and the province of its head office is noted. This presents a picture of enterprise activity in terms of horizontal and vertical integration, conglomeration and multi-national participation

**Changes below effective the first quarter release of the 2008 Inter-Corporate Ownership (ICO) CD-ROM**

Periodically, programs within Statistics Canada are evaluated. Currently, the CRA program is undergoing such a review in light of the Business Register redesign, which presents an opportunity to assess current practices within the bureau. One specific area is in establishing bureau wide direction on the concept of country of control. An agreement in principle between various divisions within Statistics Canada was reached on the use of the Industrial Organization and Finance Division (IOFD) concepts, stemming from IOFD's unique position in determining country for the purposes of the CRA program.

This does not affect the legal structures on the CD-ROM, but does affect the country of control of some structures. Country of control will continue to be primarily based on the country of residence of the top legal entity and will move toward a more consistent treatment of the ultimate parent, regardless of their country of residence.



Downloadable Collections

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